一切旧的东西又变新的了. 水电 is making its comeback, 和 not just as a generation source. 水也可以充当电池. It’s called pumped storage 和 it’s the largest 和 oldest form of energy storage in the country, 这是最有效的大规模能源储存方式.
水电是美国最早的可再生能源. It is often mistakenly considered a tapped resource, but according to the U.S. 美国能源部的2016年水电展望报告, hydropower’s capacity can sustainably add 50 new gigawatts by 2050 — 36 GW of which is pumped storage.
New Beplay世界杯客户端 Report Identifies Market, Regulatory Challenges to 抽水蓄能 水电’s Growth
The 国家水电协会 (Beplay世界杯客户端) today released the 2018 抽水蓄能 Report, 以下内容详细描述了美国的承诺和面临的挑战.S. 抽水蓄能水电工业. 抽水蓄能水电(PSH), 美国最大的电网能源储存来源, can help solve some of the most urgent problems facing the electric power sector today. Despite ensuring that electric supply securely matches electric dem和 和 in real-time, 市场, 政策和监管负担继续阻碍其增长.
报告发现PSH的一些关键属性, such as 网格 reliability 和 the integration of additional renewable resources, are not adequately compensated within the current environmental 和 power 市场s 和 regulatory constructs. 例如, 电力市场的频率调节等批发服务, 如今，在许多市场，增加和旋转储备的价值都不高, or valued in one independent system operator’s 市场 rules 和 product definitions, 但不是在另一个地方. 在许多情况下, these are typically real-time or day-ahead 市场s 和 there are no long-term 市场 products where a bulk storage project can attract investors seeking revenue certainty through long-term power purchase agreements or defined value streams.
PSH项目开发者还面临一个漫长的授权过程. Currently it can take up to ten years before a project to be licensed, built 和 become operational. 在今天快速发展的能源领域, such a long lead time could render a project obsolete before it is permitted.
此外，概述了PSH行业面临的挑战, the Report provides a series of recommendations to guide the energy industry, 监管机构, 和政策制定者.
- Develop 市场 products that allow flexible resources to be compensated for providing services that help meet electric 网格 requirements, including fast responding systems that provide critical capacity during key energy needs.
- Develop 市场 mechanisms that evaluate energy storage technologies based on their abilities to provide key supporting services to the overall electric 网格, 考虑到项目生命周期成本, 性能和储能系统降级.
- Develop 市场 mechanisms 和 products that recognize the potential energy reliability 和 security role PSH plays in the domestic electric 网格.
- 建立一个替代, streamlined licensing process for low-impact pumped storage hydropower, 如off-channel, 模块化, 或闭环项目.
- 在没有竞争性批发(能源或产能)市场的地区, require consideration of energy storage resources in state integrated long-term planning processes; including requiring equal consideration with traditional resources.
- Develop st和ard evaluation criterion for all forms of energy storage so that different types of energy storage can easily be compared 和 evaluated.
抽水蓄能 today makes up 97 percent of utility-scale energy storage in the United States at 42 sites with a total of 23 GW of capacity.
抽水蓄能 facilities are built to push water from a lower reservoir uphill to an elevated reservoir during times of surplus electricity. 在抽水模式, electric energy is converted to potential energy 和 stored in the form of water at an upper elevation, 这就是为什么它有时被称为“水电池”. Pumping the water uphill for temporary storage “recharges the battery”.
从那里开始，重力就会解决剩下的问题 .在电力需求大的时期, the stored water is released back through the turbines 和 converted back to electricity in generating mode like a conventional hydropower facility.
抽水蓄能 hydropower enables greater integration of other renewables (wind/solar) into the 网格 by utilizing excess generation, 和 being ready to produce power during low wind 和 solar generation periods. It also has the ability to quickly ramp electricity generation up in response to periods of peak dem和.
As the capacity of available firming resources continue to be stretched to their limit to support the growth of
可变可再生能源，美国.S. electric industry is moving more toward the deployment of emission-free energy storage resources. 抽水蓄能提供可预测的、一致的发电.
抽水蓄能 facilities are like sponges; they can suck up this excess energy from the 网格 和 store it for later.
其他可再生能源, 比如风能和太阳能发电, 而较少变化，有足够的地理多样性, 可以提供新的
美国面临的挑战.S. 网格. The power output in variable generation resources can fluctuate widely as weather patterns change 和, 而变化的天气模式可能会被很好地理解, 特别是可再生能源的生产规模, when not in correlation with changing load) can be challenging to 网格 operators when renewable energy resources are a large component of their generation portfolio. 这种可变输出会导致频率和电压波动, 哪些对电网稳定性有不利影响.
抽水蓄能, 然而, meets increased transmission system dem和s for reliability 和 system reserves. 它的变化, 商店, 和 reuses energy generated until there is the corresponding dem和 for system reserves 和 variable energy integration.
This shifting, when performed at a 网格-scale, can also avoid transmission congestion periods (i.e., absorb or consume surplus generation to levels consistent with transmission transfer capability), 帮助更有效地管理电网.g., 快速获得显著且持续的能量增长), 为了避免潜在的能源供应中断.g.、供应运转储备、旋转惯量等.). Advanced adjustable speed technology also allows pumped storage to provide an even greater range of fast ramping, 上下都有, 和 frequency regulation services in both the generation 和 pumping modes.